1. craven – a) cowardly, contemptibly timid, pusillanimous; b) dastardly, fearful, timorous

2. reticent– a) disposed to be silent or not to speak freely, reserved; reluctant or restrained; b) taciturn, quiet, uncommunicative

3. diffident – a) lacking confidence in one’s own ability, worth or fitness; shy; b) restrained or reserved in manner or conduct; c) self-conscious, self-effacing, abashed, embarrassed, modest, unassuming, unconfident

4. timorous – a) full or fear, fearful; b) subject to fear, timid; c) cowardly

5. pusillanimous – a) lacking courage or resolution, cowardly; b) faint-hearted, timid, timorous, fearful, frightened

6. trepidation – a) tremulous fear, alarm, or agitation, perturbation; b) trembling or quivering movement, tremor (antonym – intrepid); c) apprehension


1. banal– a) devoid TIMID/TIMIDITY of freshness or originality; b) hackneyed, trite; c) commonplace

2. insipid– a) without distinctive, interesting or stimulating qualities, vapid; b) without sufficient taste to be pleasing; c) dull, flat, uninteresting

3. platitude – a) a flat, dull, or trite remark esp. one uttered as if it were fresh or profound; b) the quality of state of being flat, dull or trite, c) cliché, truism

4. trite – a) lacking in freshness or effectiveness because of constant use or excessive repetition, hackneyed, stale; b) characterized by hackneyed expressions, ideas; c) ordinary, unoriginal

5. fatuous – a) foolish or inane, esp. in an unconscious, complacent manner, silly; b) unreal, illusory; c) dense TIMID/TIMIDITY, dull, dim-witted

6. mundane– a) of or pertaining to this world or earth, as contrasted with heaven, worldly, earthly; b) common, ordinary, banal, unimaginative; c) secular, temporal

7. prosaic – a) commonplace or dull, matter-of-fact or unimaginative; b) ordinary, everyday, vapid, humdrum, tedious, tiresome, uninteresting

8. hackneyed – a) made commonplace or trite, stale, banal; b) overdone, overused

9. pedestrian – a) lacking in vitality, imagination, distinction, i.e. commonplace, prosaic, dull (also, a person who goes everywhere on foot, not by transport)

10. quotidian – a) daily, usual, customary, everyday; b) ordinary or commonplace; c) something occurring on a daily basis

11. cliché – a) a trite, stereotyped expression TIMID/TIMIDITY; b) a sentence or phrase, usually expressing a popular or common thought or idea, that has lost originality, ingenuity, and impact by long overuse; c) platitude, bromide, stereotype, commonplace


1. adulterate – a) to debase or make impure, by adding inferior materials or elements; b) to use cheaper, inferior, or less desirable goods in the production of any genuine article

2. inhibit – a) to restrain, hinder, arrest or check (an action or impulse); b) to prohibit, forbid; c) to repress, discourage, obstruct, interdict

3. undermine – a) to injure or destroy by insidious activity or imperceptible stages, sometimes tending toward a sudden dramatic effect; b) to attack by TIMID/TIMIDITY indirect, secret, or underhanded means, attempt to subvert by stealth; c) to weaken or cause to collapse

4. enervate – a) to deprive of force or strength; b) to destroy the vigor of, weaken; c) enfeeble, debilitate, sap, exhaust

5. obviate– a) to anticipate and prevent or eliminate (difficulties, disadvantages) by effective measures, to render unnecessary; b) preclude, avert, anticipate

6. vitiate

7. exacerbate – a) to increase the severity, bitterness, or violence of (disease, ill feeling, etc); aggravate; b) to embitter the feelings of a person, irritate, exasperate; c) intensify, inflame, worsen

8. stultify– a) to make or cause to appear foolish or ridiculous; b) to render absurdly or TIMID/TIMIDITY wholly futile or ineffectual, esp. by degrading or frustrating means; c) to cripple, impede, frustrate, hinder, thwart


1. abet– a) to encourage, support or countenance by aid or approval, usually in wrongdoing ( for example, aiding and abetting is a charge given to a person who was an accessory to a crime, he helped the perpetrator carry out the crime); b) to help, aid, assist, promote

2. bolster – a) to support, as with a pillow or cushion; b) to add to, support or hold; c) to cushion, strengthen, sustain, aid, reinforce, fortify

3. espouse – a) to make one’s own, adopt or embrace, as a cause TIMID/TIMIDITY; b) to support, champion, advocate

4. propound– a) to put forth or offer for consideration or adoption, set forth, propose; b)

5. proponent – a) a person who puts forth a proposition or a proposal; b) a person who argues in favor of something, an advocate; c) a person who supports a cause or doctrine, adherent; d) supporter, champion, enthusiast

6. advocate – a) to speak or write in favor of, support, urge, encourage, or recommend publicly; b) a person who pleads the cause of another in a court of law; c) champion, proponent, backer,

7. corroborate– a) to make more certain, confirm; b) to verify, authenticate, support TIMID/TIMIDITY, validate

8. facilitate– a) to make easier, or less difficult; b) to help forward, to assist the progress of

9. mainstay – a) a person or thing that acts as a chief support or part; b) pillar, bulwark, anchor, prop, buttress

10. stalwart – a) strongly and stoutly built, sturdy and robust; b) firm, steadfast or uncompromising; c)

11. ancillary – a) subordinate, subsidiary; b) something that serves to assist; c) Interestingly enough, the root of the word is from the Latin ancillarus, which means having the status of a female slave

12. countenance – a) appearance, esp. the look or expression of the face; b) the face, visage; c) calm TIMID/TIMIDITY facial expression, composure; d) approval or favor, encouragement, moral support; e) to permit, tolerate, approve, support, encourage

13. munificent – a) extremely liberal in giving, very generous; b) characterized by great generosity; c) bountiful, bounteous, lavish

14. sustenance– a) means of sustaining life, nourishment; b) means of livelihood; c) the process of sustaining; d)


1. antithetic – a) of the nature or involving antithesis; b) directly opposed or contrasted, opposite; c) disposed to dialectic, in opposition or contrast

2. irascible – a) easily provoked to anger, irritable; b) characterized or produced by anger; c) testy, touchy, peppery, choleric, short-tempered

3. truculent– a) fierce, cruel, savagely brutal; b) brutally harsh, vitriolic, scathing; c TIMID/TIMIDITY) aggressively hostile, belligerent

4. churlish – a) boorish, rude, peasant-like; b) niggardly, mean, penny pinching, closed-fisted, c) difficult to work with or deal with; d) coarse, uncouth, vulgar, loutish, ill-natured, uncivil

5. malevolent – a) wishing evil or harm to another or others, showing ill-will, ill-disposed, malicious; b) evil, harmful, injurious

6. vindictive – a) disposed or inclined to revenge, vengeful; b) proceeding from or showing a revengeful spirit; c) unforgiving

7. curmudgeon – a) a bad-tempered, difficult, cantankerous person; b) grouch, crank, bear, sourpuss, crosspatch

8. misanthropic – a) of, pertaining to or characteristic of a hater of humankind; b) antisocial, unfriendly, morose, surly

9. misogynistic TIMID/TIMIDITY – of, pertaining to or characteristic of a person who displays hatred, dislike or mistrust of women

10. obstreperous – a) resisting control or restraint in a difficult manner; unruly; b) noisy, clamorous or boisterous; c) uncontrolled, refractory


1. implacable – a) not to be appeased, mollified or placated; b) inexorable; c) unappeasable, unbending, merciless, inflexible

2. intransigent – a) refusing to agree or compromise; b) uncompromising, inflexible

3. recalcitrant – a) resisting authority or control, not obedient or compliant, refractory; b) hard to deal with manage, or operate; c) resistant, rebellious, opposed

4. untoward – a) unfavorable or unfortunate; b) improper

5. inexorable – a) unyielding, unalterable; b) not to be persuaded, moved or affected by prayers or entreaties TIMID/TIMIDITY; c) unbending, severe, relentless, unrelenting, implacable, merciless, cruel, pitiless

6. obdurate – a) unmoved by persuasion, pity, or tender feelings, stubborn, unyielding; b) stubbornly resistant to moral influence, persistently impenitent; c) hard, obstinate, callous, unbending, inflexible, unregenerate, reprobate, shameless

7. refractory– a) hard or impossible to manage, stubbornly disobedient; b) resisting ordinary methods of treatment; c) obstinate, perverse, mulish, headstrong, intractable, disobedient, recalcitrant, ungovernable, unruly

8. intractable – a) not easily controlled or directed; b) not docile or manageable, stubborn; c) things hard to shape or work with, non-malleable; d) hard to treat, relieve or cure; e) perverse, headstrong, dogged, obdurate, stony, willful, forward, fractious, refractory, unbending TIMID/TIMIDITY, inflexible, adamant, unyielding

9. obstinate – a) firmly or stubbornly adhering to one’s purpose, opinion, etc., not yielding to argument, persuasion or entreaty; b) characterized by inflexible persistence; c) not easily controlled or overcome; d) mulish, obdurate, unyielding, unbending, intractable, perverse, inflexible, refractory, pertinacious

10. renitent – a) resisting pressure, resistant; b0 persistently opposing, resisting; b) persistently opposing, recalcitrant